Cross Examination

The Quest for a First Century Faith

This site documents one protestant Christian’s careful investigation into the doctrine of the Trinity. The goal is simple: to distinguish Biblical truth from church tradition wherever the two may diverge, in order to align as closely as possible with the faith of the first century church. It thus explores challenging questions that have tugged at the minds of many believers:

  • Did the apostles believe that Israel's One God was composed of three persons, and did they teach others to believe likewise?
  • If not, when did the doctrine of the Trinity arise and how did it become established as official church doctrine?
  • Why does Jesus call the Father "my God"? Can God have a God?
  • Why does scripture consistently refer to God using singular personal pronouns throughout the OT and NT? 
  • Can the doctrine of the Trinity withstand the kind of Biblical scrutiny that digs beneath a set of proof texts?

Respected theologians like Dr. Charles Ryrie recognize that “the N. T. contains no explicit statement of the doctrine of the triunity of God. 1 Yet we are often told that our very salvation depends upon believing it. With such high stakes, many Christians – pastors, scholars, and laypeople alike – suppress legitimate concerns and rely instead on the fact that Trinitarianism is widespread and long taught.

But from a protestant perspective, the Reformation cautions us that a doctrine can be both longstanding and widespread, yet still be incorrect. This was the contention of Martin Luther’s fellow reformer Michael Servetus. He wrote a book entitled On the Errors of the Trinity and was later burned at the stake for it – a fate Luther himself narrowly avoided after being branded a heretic in the wake of his own protests.

Both of these men recognized that the true litmus test of a doctrine is whether or not it harmonizes with the whole counsel of Scripture in its proper context. It is in the spirit of these protestant reformers that the following five problems with the doctrine of the Trinity are presented for consideration.

Problem #1: The Doctrine Evolved Under the Influence of Greek Philosophy

Problem #2: No Trinity in the Biblical Confession of Faith — Coming Soon

Problem #3: The Son of God Had a Beginning — Coming Soon

Problem #4: The Son of God Died — Coming Soon

Problem #5: Jesus Worships the One God of Israel — Coming Soon


  1.   Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to Understanding Biblical Truth, p. 60.