The Research

The Research

Below is a growing collection of in-depth exegetical and historical research articles about the doctrine of the Trinity. To offer comments on any of these articles, you are welcome to visit the Contact page and submit a reply.


Doubting Thomas

My Lord and My God in John 20:28: Two Distinct Individuals

(NEW) In John 20:28, Thomas beheld the resurrected Christ and famously exclaimed: “My Lord and my God!” One way to interpret this statement is to assume that Thomas was applying both titles to Jesus. Trinitarian Christian apologists naturally choose this ... Read More
The Seven Spirits of God

The Seven Spirits of God: Holy Spirit, Angels, or Both? (Part 2)

Who are the mysterious “seven spirits of God” that appear in the book of Revelation? In our previous article, we examined the chain of custody for John's visions and found evidence indicating that the seven spirits are ... Read More
The Seven Spirits of God

The Seven Spirits of God: Holy Spirit, Angels, or Both? (Part 1)

The enigmatic "seven spirits of God" mentioned in Revelation 1:4, 3:1, 4:5, and 5:6 have long been a mystery to theologians. Are they angels? The Holy Spirit? Could they even be both? We aren't told explicitly, but ... Read More
No Trinity in Gospel of John

5 Reasons the Gospel of John is Not Trinitarian

The Gospel of John is thought to contain the strongest evidence for the traditional view that Jesus Christ is the second member of a Triune God. From John's famous prologue to the declaration of doubting Thomas, there certainly appears to ... Read More
Is Jesus Called YHWH in Romans 10:13?

Is Jesus Called YHWH in Romans 10:13?

In Romans 10:13, Paul reaches the summit of his discourse on salvation by quoting Joel 2:32: “For, ‘everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved.'" He is no doubt aware that the divine name YHWH appears ... Read More
The Evolution of the Doctrine of the Trinity

The Evolution of the Doctrine of the Trinity

Modern Christians owe a debt of gratitude to the early church. Her legacy of courage under persecution stands to this day as a bold testimony of faith. However, this legacy tends to overshadow the devastating impact of false teachers who ... Read More
Is Jesus Called YHWH in Philippians 2:11?

Is Jesus Called YHWH in Philippians 2:11?

The famous Philippians 2 hymn known as the Carmen Christi is one of the earliest creedal statements in Christianity. Believers throughout the history of the church have echoed Paul's climactic Philippians 2:11 confession ... Read More
Jesus Praying in Gethsemane

The Messiah and His God

In Deuteronomy 6:4, the passage that famously established Judaism as a monotheistic religion, Israel’s God Yahweh (YHWH) identifies himself as “One God.” In Malachi 2:10, this “One God” Yahweh is specifically identified as the Father ... Read More
The Word Made Flesh: Reading John 1:1-14 in Light of the OT

The Word Made Flesh: Reading John 1:1-14 in Light of the OT

The traditional reading of John 1:1-14 can be traced back to the works of the fiery second century apologist Justin Martyr (150 AD). Justin took the passage to mean that Jesus pre-existed his birth as the creator of the heavens ... Read More
Who is the One God in Matthew 28:19?

Who is the One God in Matthew 28:19?

The baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 is often thought to be obvious evidence of God's triune nature. In this passage, Jesus commissions his apostles to baptize people "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the ... Read More